Writing Module Language Bank

Academic Task 1

In the first part, you have to write a minimum of 150 words altogether. You are presented with a visual which you have to describe in words, providing a general overview with supporting details. The visual might be a line graph, a bar chart, a pie chart, a diagram or a plan, and the subject of the visuals are varied. Subjects might include social trends, economics, natural or industrial processes, or health, but you do not need any specialist knowledge to do the task.

You are expected to write in a neutral or formal style.

Making an overview statement

  • We can see from the chart/table ...
  • The chart/table shows (us that) ...

Introducing an overall trend

  • From an overall perspective ...
  • Looking at the figures, we can see that ...
  • One of the first things to note is that ...
  • It is (generally) true to say that ...
  • One thing that clearly stands out is ...

Introducing a point of interest

  • It is interesting to see that ...
  • A striking point is that ...
  • Interestingly/Surprisingly ...

Introducing supporting details

  • For example ...; For instance ...
  • More specifically ...; Moreover ...
  • This fact is borne out (by the figures) when we look at ...

Comparing data

  • There is three times as much X as Y
  • In comparison to X, Y is ...
  • The former/latter ...
  • The percentage/amount/quantity of X is (not) -er than Y
  • There are (slightly/significantly) more/fewer X than Y
  • There are twice as many X as Y

Approximating

  • approximately/about/roughly
  • just above/over/under/below
  • a little/slightly less/more than ...

Describing trends

  • (The figures) increased/rose/went up from ... to ...
  • (The figures) decreased/dropped/fell from ... to
  • ... dramatically/sharply/significantly/steadily/gradually/ slightly/slowly, ...
  • ... over the year/in the same period/between X and Y.
  • There is/was a steady/gradual/sudden ...
  • There is/was a(n) (upward/downward) trend
  • There is/was little/no change
  • ... rise/increase between/from ... to ...
  • ... fall/decrease/drop/dip/decline between/from ... to ...
  • ... fluctuated between ...
  • ... reached a peak/high/low point of ...
  • ... doubled/tripled within (the period)
  • ... levelled off; ... remained (fairly) constant/stable

Time referencing

  • From the beginning of this period
  • From then until March; Between March and June ...
  • During this period ...; ... ending the year ...
  • Once/When/As soon as

Making forecasts

  • The trend looks set to continue
  • ... is/are/seems likely to ...; ... is/are estimated to ...
  • ... is/are predicted to ...

Describing a process

  • First .... Then/Next/After that .... Finally ...
  • as soon as; before

Passive voice

  • The X is made/done ...
  • After X has been completed, Y is initiated ...

Academic Task 2

In the second part, you have to write an essay with a minimum of 250 words. This involves commenting on an issue or problem which is presented in the task. You are expected to discuss various points of view and arrive at a conclusion. Topics are varied, and might include health, lifestyles, environment, or education, but you do not have to have any special knowledge to be able to do the task.

You are expected to write in a neutral or formal style.

Presenting an impartial opinion

  • It is often argued/said that ...
  • It is generally agreed that ...
  • Some/Many people believe/say/think/feel/argue that ...

Outlining contrasting views

  • Despite claims that ...
  • While/Whereas it may be true that ..., on the other hand ...
  • On the other side of the argument, ...
  • However/Nevertheless/Despite (the fact that) ...

Refuting an argument

  • Although some believe that ..., we should consider ...
  • Critics may say .... However, ...
  • It could be argued that ...; It is difficult to accept this as ...
  • While it might be argued that ..., the truth of the matter is ...
  • Though it is true that ..., we should also bear in mind that ...

Describing cause and effect

  • Consequently, ...;
  • As a result, ...;
  • This means that ...

Providing supporting evidence

  • From my experience ...
  • A good example of this ...
  • For instance ...
  • But this is not the case for ...
  • ... highlights the point

Attributing cause

  • Owing to .../On account of .../Due to ...

Linking arguments/reasons

  • Furthermore/Moreover/In addition ...
  • For one thing ..., for another ...

Giving a personal opinion

  • In my opinion, ...
  • I (generally) agree that ...
  • I think that it's reasonable to say that ...
  • I tend to think that ...

Concluding

  • In short/conclusion/summary...
  • To conclude/summarise/sum up...
  • Overall, I think the most important thing is ...