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Grammar Exercise #10

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following topic.

Air pollution in cities is growing at an alarming rate. What measures could be taken to address this problem?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples.

Write at least 250 words.

Here is a model answer. Look at the words or phrases in capitals. Choose the most appropriate word or phrase.

Air pollution can DEFINE / BE DEFINED as the addition of something harmful to the air at a faster rate than it can ABSORB / BE ABSORBED. Everyone should be concerned about air pollution. It AFFECTS / IS AFFECTED us all, and as it CONTINUES / IS CONTINUED to worsen, so the environmental impact increases.

One of the major causes of air pollution in cities is car use. Cars USE / ARE USED for even the shortest of journeys, and all efforts by governments to encourage people TO USE / TO BE USED public transport seem to be failing. Industry is another major cause of pollution in our cities, but fortunately, new industrial sites ARE BUILDING / ARE BEING BUILT away from large urban centres.

It SAYS / IS SAID that there are too many contributing factors for us TO DECIDE / TO BE DECIDED exactly which one is the main problem, but I believe that one of the most serious problems that needs TO TACKLE / TACKLING is the use of the car. In some cities laws HAVE PASSED / HAVE BEEN PASSED concerning car use. Athens, for example, only ALLOWS / IS ALLOWED a certain number of cars into the city centre each day. In my opinion, this is a good idea. With this kind of law people have no choice and FORCE / ARE FORCED to use buses and trains. This ensures governments KNOW / IS KNOWN that public transport WILL USE / WILL BE USED, and can therefore justify the investment and expense of ensuring the system works properly.

Another thing governments could do is to force people to HAVE THEIR CARS CHECKED / CHECK THEIR CARS for carbon emissions and fine people with cars that produce high levels of harmful gases.

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