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IELTS Reading - Passage 1

Questions 1-3

Complete the summary.

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.

Some plastics behave in a similar way to (1) .................... in that they melt under heat and can be moulded into new forms. Bakelite was unique because it was the first material to be both entirely (2) .................... in origin, and thermosetting.
There were several reasons for the research into plastics in the nineteenth century, among them the great advances that had been made in the field of (3) .................... and the search for alternatives to natural resources like ivory.

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IELTS Reading Tip

In the exam, you may be given a table or a flow chart (a series of steps linked by arrows) with gaps in it. You will need to read a passage to find the missing information. The answers may be in one particular section of the text, but are unlikely to be in the same order as the gaps. You will be told how many words from the text you should use, e.g. no more than two words and/or a number, one word only.

Questions 4-8

Complete the flow-chart.

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 4-8 on your answer sheet.

The Production of Bakelite
phenol  IELTS
combine under vacuum
formaldehyde  IELTS
  IELTS
  stage one resin,
called (4) ....................
  IELTS
  cool until hardened
  IELTS
  break up and grind into powder
(5) .................... 
(e.g. cotton, asbestos) 
IELTS
catalyst  IELTS
ammonia  IELTS  (6) ....................  IELTS
formaldehyde  IELTS
IELTS
  stage two resin
  IELTS
  cool until hardened
  IELTS
  break up and grind into powder
  IELTS
  (7) .................... Bakelite
  IELTS
  heat
  IELTS
  pour into mould
  IELTS
  apply intense heat and (8) ....................
  IELTS
  cool until hardened

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Questions 9-10

Write your answers in boxes 9 and 10 on your answer sheet.

NB Your answers may be given in either order.

Which TWO of the following factors influencing the design of Bakelite objects are mentioned in the text?

A the function which the object would serve
B the ease with which the resin could fill the mould
C the facility with which the object could be removed from the mould
D the limitations of the materials used to manufacture the mould
  E the fashionable styles of the period

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Questions 11-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement is true according to the passage
FALSE if the statement is false according to the passage
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage

11 Modern-day plastic preparation is based on the same principles as that patented in 1907.  

12 Bakelite was immediately welcomed as a practical and versatile material.  

13 Bakelite was only available in a limited range of colours.  

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